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1 year ago

As identified above the agricultural sector

As identified above, the agricultural sector performs a range of social and cultural functions in the dualistic Chinese economy, providing important positive externalities for society, but often at the cost of efficiency and negative externalities for the environment. The TH588 capacity of the cities for rural-urban migrants may be declining (Ni, 2013) and certainly when the economy fluctuates agriculture can help buffer the impact by providing at least basic food security and income to returning migrant workers. For example, many migrant workers went back to farming after the financial crisis in 2008 (Ni, 2013), taking advantage of the alternative social security mechanism provided by access to land and/or casual agricultural employment. The need for rural areas to provide at least minimum social security arrangements for migrant workers is reinforced by their living and working conditions in cities, and by their legal status. Migrants are a vulnerable population in urban areas because of low incomes (further reduced by remittances to family remaining in the home village), long working hours and poor housing conditions, often all provided by the informal sector (FORHEAD, 2014). Poor urban residents in neighbourhoods with limited social infrastructure are similarly vulnerable but migrant workers are particularly so, and also less likely to have access to medical and other social services, frequently living in more densely concentrated conditions in old or peripheral areas of cities with more limited access to drinking water, heating, waste disposal and other services (Holdaway, 2014).

1 year ago

Distributions of antimicrobial resistance genes among E coli isolates

Antibiogram profile KNK437 E. coli isolates from river water sources in Osun State, Nigeria.Antimicrobial familyAntimicrobial agentDisc codePotency (μg)No. of antimicrobial resistant isolates (%)TotalR1R2R3R4R5R6R7R8R9R10SulfonamidesSulphamethoxazoleSMX25a30303030303030303030300 (100)AminoglycosidesAmikacinAK3000000000000 (0)GentamycinG10532334853339 (13)KanamycinK30121005330015 (5)NeomycinNE10110003473625 (8)StreptomycinS3000323285125747 (16)β-lactamsAmpicillinAP257121612172224212120172 (57)AmoxycillinA2519252321111924111212177 (59)CephemsCefepimeCPM30211951021225506105 (35)CephalotinKF308133931121142488 (29)CefuroxineCXM3013187139192419517144 (48)CarbapenemsMeropenemMEM1000000000000 (0)ImipenemIMI1000000000000 (0)FluoroquinolonesCiprofloxacinCIP500000111003 (1)GatilofloxacinGAT500000000000 (0)QuinolonesNalidixic acidNA3029060121050044 (15)NitrofuratoinsNitrofuratoinNI2004731271092550 (17)PhenicolsChloramphenicolC3011843547105865 (22)TetracyclinesTetracyclineT3091715787824683 (28)DoxycyclineDXT3051015161161753 (18)aAs determined by the diencephalon disc diffusion.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV

1 year ago

The high resolution spectra of nitrogen and

2. Experiment
2.1. Sample preparation
Co63Fe4B22.4Si5.6Nb5 amorphous wires with average diameter of 100 μm were prepared by arc melting type melt extraction method. They were cleaned and degreased in ethanol and distilled water before being exposed to AP 18 base/acid sequence to enhance the concentration of surface hydroxides (10 min. sonication in 1 M NaOH, 5 min. sonication conc. H2SO4). The –OH on the surface may react with the silane molecule as the process shown in Fig.?1. The cleaned wires were then immersed for 30 s in a 2% solution of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) in acetone, rinsed free of excess materials with acetone and allowed to dry at room temperature for at least 2 h before use.
Fig.?1. The procedure of the coating reaction of APTS with Co63Fe4B22.4Si5.6Nb5 amorphous wires.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
2.2. Surface characterization of untreated and treated wires
XPS spectra were obtained using a Kratos AXIS ULTRADLD instrument with a monochromic Al Kα X-ray source (hν = 1486.6 eV). Spectral responses were subjected to standard curve fitting procedures in order to determine the chemical state of the elements. All peak binding energies presented were corrected for charging against the C 1s binding energy that was taken to be 284.8 eV. The binding energies associated with the surface species were identified using the NIST XPS database [10].

1 year ago

In the pressure balanced pilot valve configuration Fig

The experimental campaign has been conducted on the Moehwald-Bosch hydraulic test bench installed at the ICEAL laboratory at the Politecnico di Torino [14]. The test rig Deferasirox equipped with several instruments to detect the instantaneous injected flow-rate, injector leakages as well as pressure time histories and temperature levels at different locations in the high-pressure injection system circuit. The EVI instrument has been applied to evaluate the injected flow-rate time history [15]. Furthermore, the Moehwald-Bosch KMM flowmeter device [14] has been applied to evaluate the injector leakage mass through the pilot valve. The electric current time history to the injector has also been measured by means of a current clamp. Finally, piezo-resistive pressure transducers have been installed in the Common Rail (CR) circuit to acquire the pressure time history in the rail and at the electroinjector inlet. These pressure transducers are precambrian also equipped with thermal sensors to evaluate the mean temperature of the fluid.

1 year ago

Adsorption isotherms of quercetin onto

The quantity of titania grafted to the surface of non-porous particles was determined following titania dissolution and complexation with H2O2, where the complex absorbs light at 407 nm (calibration curve, Fig. S2) [35]. The amount of grafted titania on the particles increased linearly with the amount of titania precursor used during grafting (Fig. 3). From this analysis, the amount of titania on the particle surface is determined to be 0.33, 1.17, 2.61 and 9.83 mg of TiO2 per gram silica. Guo and Dong determined that monolayer coverage of titania corresponds to approximately 1.9 mg TiO2/m2 surface area [26]. The average diameter of non-functionalized particles (450 nm), approximate density of AC 261066 (2.2 g/cm3) and equations for volume and surface area of a sphere were used to calculate the bulk surface area of the materials to determine TiO2 grafting. This surface area was used to convert the measured values of TiO2 grafted to the particles (in mg TiO2/g silica) to surface coverage (in mg TiO2/m2 silica). This approach to surface area estimation was taken instead of BET analysis of nitrogen adsorption because of the reduced accuracy of gas adsorption measurements for low specific surface areas. Titania coating densities for synthesized particles are 0.05, 0.19, 0.43 and 1.6 mg TiO2/m2, which ranges from a light to near monolayer titania coverage (2.6–84% of a monolayer) on the nonporous particles. The use of non-porous, spherical silica particles ensured that all surfaces were uniform and equally accessible to functional groups during functionalization as well as dissolution analysis.

1 year ago

Lysozyme LSZ is a cationic protein with

Measurements started with the potentiometric titration of the supporting electrolyte. Then, the Cr2O3 suspension in the absence and presence of LSZ was titrated. The LSZ concentration was 10, 50, 100, 300 or 500 ppm. The thermostated vessel was filled with 50 cm3 of the appropriate solution and then 1.5 g of the solid was added. The systems were titrated with 0.1 M NaOH. The measurements started at the J 113397 value approximately equal to 3.5.
2.2.2. Electrokinetic potential measurements
The experiments were performed using a zetameter Zetasizer 3000 (Malvern Instruments). The apparatus determines the electrokinetic potential of colloids moving in the electric field on the steady level of the electrophoretic cell. The potential reading is appendicular skeleton made automatically when the particle movement is compensated for by the applied voltage. According to Smoluchowski, the speed (u) of the colloidal particles moving in the electric field is associated to the zeta potential (ζ) by the equation:equation(2)?=αuDFηwhere α – the factor depending on the particle shape (for spherical particles α = 6π, for cylindrical α = 4π), D – the dielectric constant, F – the electric field strength, η – the viscosity.

1 year ago

Fracture surface observation Fig xA SEM micrographs of

3.4. Fracture surface observation
Fig.?5. SEM micrographs of fracture surface of AZ505 Mg alloy after different processes: (a) SS, (b) SS + 16P ECAP, (c and d) 16P ECAP + RT rolling, (e) 16P ECAP + 673 K rolling and (f) 16P ECAP + 773 K rolling.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
4. Conclusions
AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51141002), Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. BK20131373) and the Opening Project of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials and Application Technology (Grant No. ASMA201404).
Diffusion bonding; Magnesium (Mg); Aluminum (Al); Growth kinetics; Intermetallic phases; Interdiffusion
1. Introduction
The difficulty when joining Mg and Al is the formation of high hardness and brittleness intermetallic compounds (IMCs). By using vacuum diffusion bonding the development of solidification cracking and high distortion stresses can be avoided, compared to conventional welding technique. However, the formations of IMCs at the joints limit the performances [15]. These IMCs act preferentially as the source of cracks when they grow to a certain size [16]. To achieve the maximum strength, it is essential to have complete control the growth of IMCs over the relevant process parameters.